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Sudan

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Sudan

Flag of Sudan

Sudan Media

 

Introduction   Geography   People   Government   Economy
Communications   Transportation   
Military

Map of Sudan

 

   Introduction    Sudan
Background:
Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972, but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than 4 million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords; a final Naivasha peace treaty of January 2005 granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years, after which a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict that broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003 has resulted in at least 200,000 deaths and nearly 2 million displaced; as of late 2005, peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia and Chad, and armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

 

   Geography    Sudan
Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 30 00 E
Area:
total: 2,505,810 sq km
land: 2.376 million sq km
water: 129,810 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundaries:
total: 7,687 km
border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Coastline:
853 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Terrain:
generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Natural resources:
petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 6.78%
permanent crops: 0.17%
other: 93.05% (2005)
Irrigated land:
18,630 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Environment - current issues:
inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
   People    Sudan
Population:
41,236,378 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.7% (male 8,993,483/female 8,614,022)
15-64 years: 54.9% (male 11,327,679/female 11,297,798)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 536,754/female 466,642) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.3 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.5 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.55% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
34.53 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
8.97 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 61.05 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 61.88 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 60.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.92 years
male: 57.69 years
female: 60.21 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.72 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
Nationality:
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
Ethnic groups:
black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)
Languages:
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note: program of "Arabization" in process
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.1%
male: 71.8%
female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
   Government    Sudan
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Government type:
Government of National Unity (GNU) - the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections for the 2008 - 2009 timeframe.
Capital:
Khartoum
Administrative divisions:
26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazirah (El Gezira), Al Khartum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahdah (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shamaliyah (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Bahr al Jabal), Gharb al Istiwa'iyah (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr al Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Gharb Kurdufan (Western Kordofan), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqali (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (Nile), Shamal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr al Ghazal), Shamal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shamal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa'iyah (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)
Independence:
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitution:
12 April 1973; suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998 partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR; under the CPA, Interim National Constitution ratified 5 July 2005; Constitution of Southern Sudan signed December 2005
Legal system:
based on English common law and Shari'a law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Shari'a law in the northern states; Shari'a law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Shari'a law will not apply to the southern states
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Field Marshal Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Field Marshal Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections: election last held 13-23 December 2000; next to be held no later than July 2009 under terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
election results: Field Marshall Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees for a free and fair election
note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in March 1996
Legislative branch:
bi-cameral body comprising the National Assembly and Council of States (replaced unicameral National Assembly of 360 seats); pending elections and National Election Law, the Presidency appointed 450 members to the National Assembly according to the provisions of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement: 52% NCP; 28% SPLM; 14% other Northerners; 6% other Southerners; 2 representatives from every state constitute the Council of States; terms in each chamber are five years following the first elections
elections: last held 13-22 December 2000 (next to be held 2008-2009 timeframe)
election results: NCP 355, others 5; note - replaced by appointments under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
Political parties and leaders:
political parties in the Government of National Unity include: National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed OMAR]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva Mayardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
   Economy    Sudan
Economy - overview:
Sudan has turned around a struggling economy with sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems, starting from its low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms. In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, which, along with monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain GDP growth at 8.6% in 2004. Agricultural production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the work force, contributing 39% of GDP, and accounting for most of GDP growth, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic instability - resulting from the long-standing civil war between the Muslim north and the Christian/pagan south, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$84.93 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$22.27 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
7.7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,100 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 38.7%
industry: 20.3%
services: 41% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
11 million (1996 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 7%, government 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
18.7% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
40% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
15.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $6.182 billion
expenditures: $5.753 billion; including capital expenditures of $304 million (2005 est.)
Public debt:
79% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Industries:
oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Industrial production growth rate:
8.5% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production:
3.165 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
2.943 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
401,300 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
70,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
275,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
1.6 billion bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
84.95 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
-$658 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
$6.989 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Exports - partners:
China 66.9%, Japan 10.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.4% (2004)
Imports:
$5.028 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partners:
China 13%, Saudi Arabia 11.5%, UAE 5.9%, Egypt 5.1%, India 4.8%, Germany 4.5%, Australia 4.1%, Japan 4% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.52 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
$18.15 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$172 million (2001)
Currency (code):
Sudanese dinar (SDD)
Exchange rates:
Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 243.61 (2005), 257.91 (2004), 260.98 (2003), 263.31 (2002), 258.7 (2001)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
   Communications    Sudan
Telephones - main lines in use:
1,028,900 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1,048,600 (2004)
Telephone system:
general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 249; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (1997)
Internet country code:
.sd
Internet hosts:
1 (2005)
Internet users:
1.14 million (2005)
   Transportation    Sudan
Airports:
86 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 72
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 16 (2005)
Heliports:
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
gas 156 km; oil 2,365 km; refined products 810 km (2004)
Railways:
total: 5,995 km
narrow gauge: 4,595 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km .600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2004)
Roadways:
total: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (1999)
Waterways:
4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,326 GRT/14,068 DWT
by type: cargo 1, livestock carrier 1
registered in other countries: 2 (Panama 1, Saudi Arabia 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Port Sudan
   Military    Sudan
Military branches:
Sudanese People's Armed Forces (SPAF): Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force
Military service age and obligation:
18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - three years (August 2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 8,291,695
females age 18-49: 8,135,683 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 5,427,474
females age 18-49: 5,649,566 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 442,915
females age 18-49: 426,320 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$587 million (2001 est.) (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
3% (1999) (2004)

 

 

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