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The Country & People of Sudan

Sudan - Republic of the Sudan - Jumhuriyat as-Sudan

This page contains links to sites in Sudan and Sudan related sites.
For Middle East, North Africa, Arab and regional information visit Arab Countries

 

Sudan, officially Republic of the Sudan, republic (1995 est. pop. 30,120,000), 967,494 sq mi (2,505,813 sq km), the largest country in Africa, bordered by Egypt (N), the Red Sea (NE), Eritrea and Ethiopia (E), Kenya, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (S), the Central African Republic and Chad (W), and Libya (NW). The principal cities are Khartoum (the capital) and Omdurman. The most notable geographical feature is the Nile R., which, with its tributaries, flows through eastern Sudan from south to north. Rainfall in Sudan diminishes from south to north; thus the southern part of the country is characterized by swampland and rain forest, the central region by savanna and grassland, and the north by desert and semidesert. There are mountains in the northeast, south, arab, and west; the highest point is Kinyetti (10,456 ft/3,187 m), in the southeast. Agriculture, mostly of a subsistence nature, dominates the economy. Long-staple cotton, the principal cash crop, is raised in the irrigated Al Gezira region. Other crops include sesame, sorghum, millet, peanuts, dates, and sugarcane. Cotton, sesame, gum arabic (much of the world's production), livestock, and peanuts are exported. The small mining industry extracts chromite, copper and manganese ores, gypsum, and gold. Industry is largely devoted to the processing of agricultural products. The population is divided into three main groups: northerners, who are Muslim and speak Arabic (the official language); westerners, largely Muslim and originally (20th cent.) from W Africa; and southerners, who follow traditional beliefs mostly and speak Nilotic languages. There is a Christian minority in the south.

History
Northeast Sudan, called Nubia in ancient times, was colonized by Egypt about 2000 BC and was ruled by the Cush kingdom from the 8th cent. BC to the 4th cent AD Most of Nubia was converted to Coptic Christianity in the 6th cent., but by the 15th cent. Islam prevailed. In 1821 the north was conquered by Egypt, but a revolt by the nationalist Mahdi in 1881 forced an Egyptian withdrawal. In the 1890s an Anglo-Egyptian force under Herbert Kitchener destroyed the theocratic Mahdist state, and in 1899 most of Sudan came under the joint rule of Egypt and Britain (with Britain exercising actual control).

Independence was achieved in 1956. In 1955 the animist southerners, fearing that the new nation would be dominated by the Muslim north, began a civil war that lasted 17 years. In 1972 Pres. Muhammad Gaafar al-Nimeiry ended the war by granting the south a measure of autonomy. However, his imposition of Islamic law on the entire country in 1983 reopened the conflict, and close to 2 million have died since, many from starvation.

Nimeiry was deposed by a military coup in 1986. A short-lived civilian government was overthrown in 1989 by Lt. Gen. Omar Hassan al-Bashir; he officially became president in 1993 and was elected to the post in 1996. Bashir's government reinstituted Islamic law, banned opposition parties, and jailed dissidents. Throughout the 1990s the army mounted offensives against the rebels in S Sudan; several cease-fires were announced to allow the distribution of food to famine victims, but they did not hold. In recent years Sudan has supported Muslim fundamentalists internationally.

In 1998 U.S. missiles destroyed a pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum that was suspected of manufacturing chemical weapon compounds to be used in terrorist activities, but international investigators were unable to find evidence to support the charges.

In late 1999 a power struggle developed between Bashir and the speaker of the parliament, Hassan al-Turabi. Bashir dissolved parliament and in 2000 also secured his control of the ruling National Congress party. In Dec. 2000 he was reelected president, and his party swept the parlimentary elections; the opposition boycotted the vote. Turabi was put under house arrest in Feb. 2001 after signing an agreement with the rebels calling for peaceful resistance to Bashir's government.

The government and rebels agreed in July 2002 to a framework for peace that called for autonomy for the south and a referendum on independence after six years, and a truce was signed in October. Despite some cease-fire violations, talks continued in 2003. The Darfur rebels subsequently agreed to form alliance with the Beja rebels in NE Sudan (around Kasala) if they were not included in any settlement with the government; the Beja group had expected to be part of the negotiations with the southern rebels.

Militias allied with the government in Darfur (and the government itself) were accused of ethnic cleansing, and perhaps as many as 800,000 Sudanese were displaced by the fighting, with many of them fleeing to Chad. A new cease-fire was signed in Apr., 2004, but it too did not hold. Also in April, Turabi and members of his party were again arrested by the government, which accused them of plotting against it; in September the government asserted that a new coup plot involving the jailed Turabi had been uncovered.

There was increasing pressure in mid-2004 from the United Nations, United States, and European Union on Sudan to end the attacks in Darfur, and in July, 2004, Bashir’s government promised the United Nations that it would disarm the militias. A lack of significant progress in ending the fighting and disarming the militias led to UN Security Council resolutions against Sudan in July and September. The latter resolution called for an investigation into whether the attacks were genocide, as U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell had charged. By October it was estimated that 1.5 million had been displaced by the conflict in Darfur. Meanwhile, there were attacks against Sudanese in the south by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a Ugandan rebel group, leading both southern Sudanese rebels and government-allied militias to mount a drive against the LRA.

Copyright (c) 2003 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.

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Most local links in other categories also include extensive or interesting country information.
All sites are in English or an English version is available except where indicated with flag(s) without "+".
The flag(s) means the site is available in the language of the flag(s). If more than 5 languages (other than Arabic or English) the UN flag is used, example
Other languages means 5 languages other than English or Arabic
Arabic means it is available in Arabic only and +Arabic is available in Arabic and English

About Sudan

General Information Also see Travel
All Referer Earth & environment, history, literature & arts, people, places, plants & animals, religion, science & technology, sports & everyday life....
Arab DataNet Country profile, key facts, overview, economic review, political structure, sector analysis, investment, government, companies....
ArabInfo Overview, government, history, links
ArabNet Overview, history, geography, business, culture, government, transport, tour guide, links
Atlapedia Geography, climate, people, demography, religion, education, modern history, currency, other information....
BBC Country Profile Key facts, figures and dates
Britannica.Com Country info, land, people, economy, society, government, history, culture, maps, statistics, links....
CIA World Factbook Map, geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, issues
Country Reports Economy, defense, geography, government, people, anthem, map, news, weather, links....
Encarta OnLine Info, land & resources, population, economy, government, history, other related items, links....
Encyclopaedia of the Orient Geography, politics, economy, health, education, religion, people, history, anthem, cities....
Expedia Almanac, fast facts, communications, on business, health & safety, transportation, traveler's directory
Info Please General info, map, geography, government, history, land & people....
Nation By Nation Info, government, human rights, news, geography, history, people, links....
SudanNet Everything about Sudan....
US Department of State - Background Notes People, history, government, political conditions, economy, travel, business, foreign relations....
US Library of Congress Everything you ever wanted to know about Sudan....
World66 General info, cities, history, people, economy, getting around, getting there, links....

Cities, Towns, Municipalities & Places

Bara Information, map, images, news, personalities....
Kassala Arabic Features of the town, people....
Port Sudan One of Sudan's deep-water ports on the Red Sea. Gateway to Sudan....
Wadmadani Arabic Info, history, culture, services, historical and recent pictures, links....
World Monuments Endangered sites: Gebel Barkal Archaeological Site, Karima

Flag, Maps, Useful Information....

Cellular News Cellular coverage map, systems, frequencies....
Ethnologue Languages
Flag Description, meaning, history, interesting facts
Flag Explanation, historical, military & political flags, subdivisions, national emblem....
Maps Country & detailed maps
Maps Cities & towns. Global position, altitude, WAPF (weather) forcast,
World Clock Local time, sunrise, sunset, GMT offset, daylight saving....
World Paper Money Paper currency since 1970
 
 

About Sudan * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Business and Economy

General, Economy, Reports & Statistics
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Fact sheet (pdf) & travel information....
Bilateral Relations with Japan Diplomatic, investment, economic cooperation, residents....
MBendi Business information, news, industries, events
Muslim Trade Network Trade reference directory and guide....
Organization of Islamic Countries +Arabic The most comprehensive database: statistical, economic and social
Ports Focus Ports, harbours, marinas....
Sudan and the IMF Position in the fund, reports....
US Department of Energy Analysis, information, oil, natural gas, coal, electricity....
World Bank Overview, news & events, data & statistics, publications & reports, development topics, projects & programs, Public Information Center

Banks

Bank of Sudan +Arabic The Central Bank of Sudan....
Sudanese French Bank (SFB) +Arabic Provides excellent banking services domestically and internationally

Directories, Job Opportunities

Investment & Promotion....

 

 
 

About Sudan * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Art, Culture & Sport

General Resources, Heritage....

Art, Literature, Photography, Cinema....

Amir Tagelsir +Arabic Writer, novelist, poet....
Shiekh Abdel Rahim Al Bori Arabic A leading Sufi figure in Sudan, biography, works, photos, forum, Al-Zreibah....

 

Arab Film Distribution - Sudan Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
Internet Movie Database Movie & TV reports
Guide to Theatres +Francais Activity, companies, places, events, festivals....

Music, Song & Dance....

Omdur Sudanese music: Haqiba, golden era, contemporary, madeeh....

Cultural, Scientific, Environmental, Sporting Entities & Info

 

Animal Info Threatened species, environmental and social data
AquaStat Information on quantity and quality of freshwater and its availability

 

Al-Adiyat Arabic Equestrian news, statistics, archives, breeding, reports....
Sudan Soccer Arabic News, statistics, stars, reports....

About Sudan * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Education

Schools, Colleges, Academies, Universities & Polytechnics
Nibrass International Private schools +Arabic Nursery, pre-school, primary....
WorldWide Classroom University & adult education, K12 & teen....

 

Ahfad University for Women A private university in Sudan dedicated to educating women - Omdurman
Bayan Science and Technology College +Arabic Electronic systems engineering and computer and information science
College of Medicine Arabic At University of Khartoum
College of Technological Sciences Arabic
Computerman College Computer engineering, computer sciences, information technology....
Neelain University Arabic Khartoum
Sudan University of Science and Technology +Arabic
University of Khartoum Located in Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman

Institutions & Organizations

Association for the Promotion Scientific Innovation +Arabic Promoting creative people in the applied and technological fields
Higher Education Admission Board Arabic
Sudan-American Foundation for Education Seeks to improve education in Sudan
Sudan Volunteer Programme A London based charity dedicated to sending graduates to Sudan to teach English

Research, Resources & Projects

Postgraduate Medical Studies Board Bi-monthly bulletin
Sudan Studies Association Organized for educational and scientific purposes and to facilitate the distribution of knowledge and understanding of the Sudan (USA)

About Sudan * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

History, Human Right & Politics

Ancient & Modern....
BBC Timeline A chronology of key events
Kalakla Arabic History of the Kalakla tribe.
Political Geography Land and people, economy, history....
World Statesmen Flags, chronology, rulers, governors, ministers, commissioners....

Human Rights, Politics & Political Parties....

Advisory Council on Human Rights Official government information on human rights in Sudan
Amnesty International +Francais Espanol News, reports, urgent action. Latest annual report....
Coalition Against Slavery in Mauritania and Sudan - CASMAS A human rights abolitionist movement
Human Rights Watch +Arabic Other languages Human rights developments & report
US Department of State Country reports on human rights practices

 

Sudan Alliance Forces +Arabic Overthrowing the Islamic fundamentalist dictatorship. Replacing it with a functioning democracy
Free Sudan Center Freedom, human rights and democracy in Sudan
Umma Party Together for liberation, unity and development

Related Sites, Articles....

Constitution Background, history & news
Elections Results, parties, parliament, electoral institutes, electoral calendar, political database....

About Sudan * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Visit Arab Media for satellite stations & Arab newspapers

Media

Newspapers, Magazines....
Akhbar Al-Youm Arabic Daily newspaper....
Al-Adwaa Arabic Daily newspaper....
Al-Daraweesh Arabic Monthly magazine (UK)
Al-Mushahid Arabic Daily newspaper....
Al-Rai Al-Aam Arabic Daily newspaper
Alwaan Arabic Daily newspaper

OnLine News, Newsletters, News Agencies....

About Sudan News, articles, interviews, action, democracy....
AllAfrica.Com News plus, news wire....
Nile Kids Online magazine in English for Sudanese kids
Sudan Gate +Arabic Provide a reasonable and reliable sources of information for Sudanese communities abroad
SudaNile Arabic Online newspaper....
Sudan Tribune News and views, information site on Sudan....
Washington Post News & references
Yahoo full news coverage

Radio, TV, Internet....

Face2Face Arabic Wajhan li Wajh - TV program dealing with social issues....

Articles, Reports, Cartoons....

One World +Other languages Archives, articles and news from different sources

About Sudan * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Visit Arab Organizations for Pan-Arab, middle East, North Africa and regional organizations

Government & Organizations....

Government, Ministries, Overseas Missions, Embassies....
Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members
Political Leaders Dates and figures of the leadership since 1956 (with pictures)

 

Committee For Executing National Register Of Sudanese Experts Arabic
Council Of The Ministers +Arabic Information concerning investment ,econmic growth, cabinet ministries and members
Geological Research Authority The principal point of contact for investors in the mining sector
Ministry of Higher Education & Science Research Arabic
Ministry of Investment +Arabic Creating a favorable investment climate and developing promotional tools
National Information Centre Arabic
Sudan Customs +Arabic Collect indirect taxes from imports, exports and excise
Sudan Government Arabic
Taxation Chamber +Arabic Business profits Tax , the personal income Tax , the real estates Tax and the stamp duties

 

Embassy of Sudan - Berlin, Germany Arabic Deutsch
Embassy of Sudan - Bucharest, Romania +Romana Consular affairs, economy & business, human rights, slavery, tourism, Sudan....
Embassy of Sudan in Ottowa, Canada Consular affairs, economy & business, peace, tourism, Sudan....
Embassy of Sudan in Paris, France Francais Consular affairs, economy, tourism, Sudan....
Embassy of Sudan in South Africa Consular affairs, news, trade, tourism, Sudan....
Permanent Mission to the United Nations in Vienna About Sudan, constitution, investment, tourism, economy....

Corporations, Organizations, Public Hospitals and Industrial Entities

Centers, Institutions, Societies....

Al-Mahgoub Foundation Main concern is the well being and the good future of Sudan
Khartoum Cheshire Home A rehabilitation center for children with a physical disability
Sudan Internet Society addressing key issues about the roles and uses of Internet

Foreign Entities

British Embassy Information about the Embassy, about British Government policies and advice for visitors to and from the UK....

 

British Counsil Library and information services, events, news, conferences, learn English
Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières Activities, news, press releases....
International Rescue Committee Sudan. Program Activities: Women in Development, Health, Capacity Building for Sudanese Organizations
International Rescue Committee South Sudan. Involved in education and training, primary health care, water and sanitation....
OXFAM A fair world in which people control their own lives and their basic rights are achieved....
US Committee for Refugees +Francais Reports on conditions for refugees and internally displaced persons
USAID Assistance to Sudan....
World Food Programme Fight against global hunger....
World Health Organization Tobacco & health, socio-economic situation

About Sudan * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Travel & Tourism

Airlines, Air, Sea & Coach Charters Services
Airports Airport names, cities and codes

Travel, Tours, Guides.... More country info

Sea Desert Tours Dedicated to maximizing the ease and comfort for travelers both within Libya , Egypt and Sudan
Raidan Travel & Tours Tourism in Sudan icluding visa arrangements

 

Adventures of Sudan Getting there & costs, safety & health, visa, climate, cities, holidays....
Africa Guide Introduction, visitor info, accommodation, tours....
Lonely Planet Travel information
Middle East Travel Accommodation, history, after hours, travel info, addresses, cities & sights, business....
Travel Guide General & travel info, money, duty free, health, accommodation, visas....
World Travel Guide Travel information, regions & places....

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Hotels Travel Hotels directory & tourist information
Inn26 Hotels and motels directory, local info....
 

Health & Travel Tips
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Travel Document Systems Passports, visas, travel documents
US Consular Information Warning, visa, security, health, crime/drug penalties....

Weather....

Weather Underground Temperature, humidity, pressure and conditions by city
Yahoo Weather By city. Forcast, sunrise, sunset, humidity, wind, dewpoint....

About Sudan * Business * Culture * Education * History * Media * Organizations * Travel * Gateways * Arab Countries

Visit Arab Gateways for Arab and other country links

Gateways to Sudan

Sudan Home Selected links to Sudanese sites on the web, directory, information....
Sudanese Online Resource for Sudan & Sudanese on the net

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